site logo

by Frank Lin in Front-end
2018-05-11 6 minutes to read 1 views 0 comments

As I need to update an array in Firestore with duplicate-free values, let’s go through the methods I found and see how they perform.


Let’s say we have a randomArray with 100,000 random float values and log the execution time in Node.js (v10.0.0) with:

const randomArray = Array.from({length: 1e5}, () => Math.random() * 100);

const start = new Date();
// run scripts
const end = new Date() - start;"Execution time: %d ms", end);

indexOf and includes

function onlyUnique(value, index, self) { 
  return self.indexOf(value) === index;

const uniqueValues = randomArray.filter(onlyUnique);

This method uses the inbuilt Array.prototype.filter method available from ES5.

The filter method goes through each value in the array it is run upon, and passes (currentValue, index of currentValue in the array, and the array itself) as arguments. It returns an array of values at which the passed callback returns a ‘true’. 1

The onlyUnique method gets those arguments for each iteration. It relies on the fact that the indexOf method would go through the entire array and return the index of the first match; the equality condition would thus only be true for the first occurrence of a value in the array.

This method takes about 3755 ms on my MacBook (13-inch, 2017).

It’s the same with a explicit for loop using the indexOf method:

let result = [];

for (let index = 0; index < randomArray.length; index++) {
  let el = randomArray[index];
  if (result.indexOf(el) === -1) result.push(el);
  // if (!result.includes(el)) result.push(el);

The execution time is about the same with onlyUnique function above (i.e. 3736 ms here). Let’s check the Array.includes() method instead of indexOf. Well, it’s almost the same with 3733 ms.

forEach & reduce

Utilise the forEach() or reduce() methods to check through the array again:

let result = [];
randomArray.forEach((el) => {
  if (!result.includes(el)) result.push(el);

// let result = randomArray.reduce((array, el) => {
//   if (!array.includes(el)) array.push(el);
//   return array;
// }, []);

3739 ms and 3734 ms for each method, no much difference.


The Set is a new built-in object available in ES6 that lets you store unique values of any type, whether primitive values or object references. Using a Set in conjunction with the Array.from() method we can quickly remove duplicated values from source array.

let result = Array.from(new Set(randomArray));

Well, let’s check the execution time, 38 ms! That’s 100x faster than loops with indexOf or includes.

Instead of the Array.from() method, we can use splat operator (...):2

let result = [ Set(randomArray)];

But be careful about the browser support for the new Set data structure and the equality rules it follows to calculate the equality between values. Also, it seems that Array.from() is not supported on Android webview.3


The Set.has() method allows to check if an element exists in a Set in similar way as Array.includes() or Array.indexOf(). Let’s try it in a for loop together with Set.add() method:

let result = [];
let seen = new Set();

for (let index = 0; index < randomArray.length; index++) {
  let value = randomArray[index];
  if (seen.has(value)) continue;

This time, the execution time is only 29 ms, a little bit faster. From 3000+ ms to ~30 ms, we got much better performance. Check the compatibility if you’re going to use new Set() in web browser.

New onlyUnique function

Now, let’s make the above method into a function that can be reused:

function onlyUnique(array) { 
  const seen = new Set();
  const tempArray = [];
  for (let index = 0; index < array.length; index++) {
    const value = array[index];
    if (seen.has(value)) continue;
  return tempArray

Simply check with a small array with our new onlyUnique function:

const randomArray = [1, 4, 5, 2, 5, 2, 2, 4, 'h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', 'w', 'o', 'r', 'l', 'd'];
const result = onlyUnique(randomArray);

// [ 1, 4, 5, 2, 5, 2, 2, 4, 'h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', 'w', 'o', 'r', 'l', 'd' ]
// [ 1, 4, 5, 2, 'h', 'e', 'l', 'o', 'w', 'r', 'd' ]

Fine, our new onlyUnique works as expected.

Any problems or suggestions? Please let me know!


JavaScript array filter unique Set